Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur H

Hadfield, M. 1967, What is Paeonia mlokosewitschii? Gard. Chron. 162 (22) : 18. Photographs

Hafler, K & Knoll, F (1956-1960 & 1963-1967) Catalogus Florae Austriae. Vols. 1– 4 . Wien, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Springer. Wien, New York

HagaT , OgataT,1956,A Cytogenetic Study of Natural Population of Paeonia japonica, with special Reference to the Failure of Meiotic Chromosome Pairing,Cytologia, vol.21 (1): 11-20 {TM_hag}

Haig, E.: The floral symbolism of the great masters. French, Trübner &. Co, London 1913.

Halácsy, E. de (1900?) Conspectus Florae Graecae, vol. 1 : 35, éd. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig

Halacsy,1901?, Consp Flora Graec. Paeonia 1, 35 ?

Josef J. Halda, Czech Republic

Halda, J. J.: 1997 Systematic treatment of the genus Paeonia L. with some nomenclatoric changes; in Acta Musei Richnoviensis, Sect. Nat., 4(2): 1997, pp. 25 - 32. ISBN 80-86076-07-5

Halda, J. J.: 1998 Notes on the observation upon the structure of the Paeonia seeds, fruit and Roots; in Acta Musei Richnoviensis, Sect. Nat., 5(1): 1998, pp. 1-4 ? ISBN 80-86076-08-3

Halda, J. J. & Horacek, L.:1999 New descriptions and combinations ...... Paeonia lutea subsp. ludlowii (Stern & Taylor) J. J. Halda; in Acta Musei Richnoviensis, Sect. Nat., 6(3): 1999, p. 234. ISBN 80-86076-17-2

Halda, J. J. Seed List 2000-2001

Halda, J.J. Seed List 2001-2002 (Samenliste in deutsch)

Halda, J.J. (seeds 2001) (Samen 2001)

Halda,J.J. (seeds 2003)

Query on the plant names project:

Haller, A. von 1745 Flora Ienensis Henrici Bernhardi ex posthvmis avctoris schedis et propriis observationibvs avcta et emendata accesservnt plantarvm rariorvm novae icones. Iena, C.H. Cvnonis,.

Haller, A. von 1768 Historia Stirpium Indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata. Bernae, Societatis Typographicae,.

Haller, A. von 1795 Icones Plantarum Helvetiae, ex ipsius Historia Stirpium Helveticarum ... Additis notis Editoris (Jac. Sam. Wyttenbach). Bernae, Soc. Typorgr.,. Paeonia ?

Hallier, E.H. Deutschland's Flora oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der daselbst wildwachsenden Pflanzen. In naturgetreu colorirten Abbildungen. Vollständig in einhundert Lieferungen. Achte vollständig umgearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. Leipzig, W. Baensch Verlagshandlung, (1873-1870). 3 volumes. 4to (280 x 195mm). pp. (2), xxxvi, with 500 handcoloured engraved plates.

Hallier,1890, Koch's Syn. Deutschen and Schweizer Flora Ed. 3, Paeonia p.57-58

Halliwell, B. (1984). Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Joseph Rock’ – NCCPG Newsletter No. 5

HamadaM,HosokiT , InabaK ,1989,Morphological peony cultivars classification based on multivalate analysis, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 60:395-403

HamadaM, HosokiT , MaedaT,1990,Shoot Length Control of Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) with Uniconazole and Paclobutrazol, Hortiscience vol.25:2 pp.198-200

Hamilton ,1993,The Peony Gardens Peonies for Pleasure,Lake Hayes, No1 RD Queenstown, New Zealand

Hamilton ,1996,The Peony Gardens Peonies for Pleasure 2nd Ed.,Lake Hayes, No1 RDQueenstown, New Zealand

HamptonFA,1929, P.mlokosewitschi,Gard. Ill, vol51, p429

Hance,1880, Journ Botany 18, 257

Hance,1882, Journ Botany 20, 257

Hance ,1880,P.albiflora,Journ Botany XVIII 257

Hance ,1882,P.albiflora,Journ Botany XX 257

Handel-Mazzetti—Heinrich von Handel-Mazzetti, 1862-1940, Österreich

Handel-Mazzetti, H., 1920, P.oxypetala in: , Anzeig no. 25 Akad Wiss Wien Math Natur LVII 265

Handel-Mazzetti, H. 1927 "Naturbilder aus Südwest China" by ÖSTERREICHISCHER BUNDESVERLAG, Vienna, 1927. English translation, complete and unabridged, with biography of Handel-Mazzetti by David Winstanley as "A Botanical Pioneer in South West China, Experiences and Impressions of an Austrian Botanist During the First World WarISBN 0 9529230 0 9 Copyright ® 1996 David Winstanley

Handel-Mazzetti, H., 1931, Symbolae Sinicae. Botanische Ergebnisse der Expedition der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien nach Südwest-China (1914/18). Wien. Paeonia VII (2) 265-266 Vienna 1931

Handel-Mazzetti, H., 1939, Plantae Sinensis, Meddelanden Från Göteborgs Trädgård [Acta Horti Gotoburgensis], 1939, XIII, 37-40 (mit der Erstbeschreibung von P. decomposita with the first desription of P. decomposita)

Hansen, A. 1974. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera), Copenhagen,

HaoH,ZangD,HanM , FanC,1992,An Introduction to Heze Peony of China Heze,,PRC:,Heze Peony Research Institute

Hara ,1962,emodi f.glabrata

Hara, H. , Stearn, W.T., Williams, L.H.J. (1978) An Enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. Vols. 1- 3 London, Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History)

HaradaM, OzakiY , SuzukiM,1984,Effect of Japanese Angelica Root and Peony Root on Uterine Contraction in the Rabbit in situ,Journ Pharmacobio-Dynamics vol7:5 pp304-311

HarashimaS , OnoK,1981,Establishment of haploid, diploid and mixoploid cell-lines from isolated microspore cultures in peony,Japan Journ Genetics vol56:6 pp596--

Harding, Alice, 1917. The Book of the Peony. Waterstone &. Co, London 1917.

Harding, Alice, 1993,The Peony: Alice Harding's Peonies in the little Garden and The Book of the Peony.145 pages · 26 color photographs · 23x16 · reprint Introduced and updated by RoyGKlehm,Portland,Oregon: Sagapress/Timber Press

Harrison, Charles Simmons, 1907, The Peony,York, Nebraska: Self-published

Harrison, Charles Simmons, 1916 , A manual giving complete directions for the propagation and cultivation of the peony / by C. S. Harrison. 4th ed. enl., improved, and up-to-date. York, Neb. : Harrison, 69 p., [2] leaves of plates : ill., port. : 22 cm.

Harris, Paul Benjamin 2001 : EXPOSÉ zum Film „Die abenteuerlichen Reisen des JOSEPH FRANCIS ROCK, © PEOPLE AND PLACES, COLOGNE 2001) TREATMENT of the Film: „The Adventurous Travels of JOSEPH F. ROCK“ with kind permission of Paul Harris, in german language only, the Exposé to his film about the life of Joseph Rock.

Harris, RA , MantellSH,1991,Effects of Stage-II Subculture Durations on the multiplication Rate and Rooting Capacity of Micropropagated Shoots of Tree Peony ,Journ Horticultural Science vol 66:1 pp 95-102

Hartinger,1897, Atl.Alpenfl. 2, t.113 ;

Hartwiss—Nicolai von Hartwiss, 1791-1961, France

Hartwiss ,1846,wittmanniana,Bot Reg 32,t9

Hashida, Ryoshi, Shimane, Japan d.2001

Hashida,Ryoji,1990,A Book of Tree and Herbaceous Peonies in Modern Japan,Tatebayashi City, Japan: Japan Botany Society

Hashida Ryoji 1990 Gendai Nihon no botan shakuyaku daizukan /[hencho Nihon Botan Kyokai ; shippitsu Hashida Ryoji ; satsuei Hashida Ryoji] Tokyo : Kodansha,. 255 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 31 cm. In Japanese and English. Includes bibliographical references (p. 235) and indexes.ISBN 4062048124

HashidaRyoji,1983,Historical Review of culture in tree peony,Nat Plants 17,8-12

HashidaRyoji,1990,Botan Shakuyaku Daijiten Encyclopedia of tree and herbaceous peony,Koudansha, Tokyo p9-182p242-246

Hashida, Ryoji (1998) Japanes Type Peony- That Alice Harding Illustrated in her Book. American Peony Society Bulletin 305, March 1998 p. 36-39

Hashida, Ryoshi 1996, A Book of Tree and Herbaceous Peonies in Modern Japan - 2nd printing · 255 pages · photos of 306 trees and 83 herbaceous · 23x31 . Deutsche Übersetzung von Birte Dilcher, Bonn 1996 Hrsg. der Übersetzung Wolfgang Linnemann

Hatip-Al-Khatib I, Egashira N, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Iwasaki K, Kurauchi K, Inui K, Ikeda T, Fujiwara M. Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Sep;96(1):33-41. Epub 2004 Sep 4. [Abstract: The improving effects of various components of Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TSS) and fractions isolated from Angelica acutiloba Radix (Toki) on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment were investigated in eight-armed radial maze. The scopolamine-induced memory impairment was characterized by prominent increase of error choices in addition to decreased correct choices. Toki, Cnidium officinale Rhizoma (Senkyu), Poria cocos Hoelen (Bukuryo), Alisma orientale Rhizoma (Takusha), and Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma (Sojutsu) increased the correct choices, while only the Toki, Sojutsu, and Takusha decreased the error choices. No effect was produced by Paeonia lactiflora Radix (Shakuyaku). Investigation of effects of fractions isolated from Toki revealed that its activity mainly resided in the butanol layer and its contents of N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide and amines. Moreover, the alkaloid, internal and external solutions (containing poly-, di-, and monosaccharides) obtained by dialysis with Visking cellophane tubing also improved the memory. However, no improving properties were detected for methanol and hexanol layers, L-(-)-tryptophan, L-arginine, L-(-)-lysine, and choline chloride. The results showed that the TSS components could improve the reference and working memory impaired by scopolamine. The improving effect of TSS is produced greatly by the Toki component, the activity of which was greatly produced by the fraction extracted by butanol.] Department of Pharmacology, Division of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.. Click here to read complete article.

Stephen G Haw, England

Haw, Stephen G ,1985, Mudan: The king of flowers, Garden vol.110 (4):154-159

Haw, Stephen G, 1986, A problem of the peonies, Garden vol.111 (7): 326-328

Haw, Stephen G, 1990, A thousand petals. Country Life. May 17, 1990, p. 188-189 col Photographs

Haw, Stephen G & Lauener LA,1990, A review of the intraspecific taxa of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 47(3):273-281

Haw, Stephen G., 1991. Tree Peonies: A Problem Resolved – The Plantsman 13 (2): 94-97.

Haw, Stephen G., 1993. Letter in The Garden 118 (4): 176.

Haw, Stephen G, 2000, Paeonia ostii in Britain. The New Plantsman 7 (3): 160-163

Haw, Stephen G., 2001, Tree Peonies, a Review of their History and Taxonomy. The New Plantsman. 8 (3): 156-171

Haw, Stephen G., 2001, Paeonia delavayi, a variable species. The New Plantsman, 8 (4) 251-253

Haworth-Booth M,1963,The Moutan or Tree Peony,Constable,London

Haworth-Booth, Michael.1963 The moutan, or tree peony. New York, St. Martin's Press, 106 p. plates. 22 cm. Bibliography: p. 103-106.

Hayashi K (1939) Studien über Anthocyane. IV. Isolierung des Paeonins aus den Blüten von Paeonia albiflora var. hortensis (in German). Acta Phytochim 11:80–90

Hayashi, Kozo (1943) Anthocyanins X. The pigments of the blossoms of Paeonia suffruticosa Acta Phytochim. (Japan) (1943), 13(No. 2), 85-92. German. [Abstract: cf. preceding abstract The blossoms of the scarlet varieties Hinode and Shine-Kagura of Japanese peony contain pelargonin, the more violet-hued variety Hana-daigin has peonin. These were extracted from the fresh blossoms wit 1% MeOH-HCl and precipitated as the pelargonin chloride and peonin chloride by addition of Et2O. Pelargonin chloride retained 3.5 mols. of H2O of crystallization after months of air drying and was split by boiling with 20% HCl into on mol. of pelargonidine chloride and two mols. of glucose. Peonin chloride (C.A. 34, 2376.8) analyzed as C28H33O16Cl.5H2O, air dry. Its partition coeffs. between iso-AmOH and 0.5% HCl were 1.6 and 1.5. Hydrolysis with HCl yielded 1 mol. peonidin chloride to 2 mols. glucose.]

Hayashi K, Abe Y (1953) Studien über Anthocyane. XXIII. Papier-chromatographische Übersicht der Anthocyane im Pflanzenreich. I (in German). Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho Iho 29:1–8 [Abstract: cf. C.A. 46, 7567g. The distribution of apigeninidin (synthesized), pelargonidin, cyanidin, peonidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonin and chrysanthemin in the coloring matter singly or in combination of 74 species (38 families) of plants in Japan was determined chromatographically in AcOHHCl-H2O and lactic acid-H2O.]

Hayek—August Hayek, 1871-1928, Österreich

Hayek,1908, Flora Steierm. 1, 434

Hayek,1915-16,Pflanzendr. Oesterr.-Ung. 1, 448, et al., fig. 308

Hayek,1924, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Balcanicae. Feddes' Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte, 30 (1) : 297-298

Hayek ,1927,officinalis glabra

Hegi,1909, Ill Flora Mitt. Eur. 3, 454, c. fig.

HeikalOA, AkaoT, TakedaS++,1997,Pharmacokinetic Study of Paeonimetaboli-I, a major Metabolite of Paeoniflorin from Peony Roots,Biol & Pharmaceutical Bull vol.20:5 pp 517-521

Heinemann F.C. Katalog der Staudengärtnerei, Erfurt 1932 (Paeonia)

He JX, Akao T, Tani T. Restorative effect of repetitive administration of Shaoyao-Gancao-tang on bioavailability of paeoniflorin reduced by antibacterial synthetic drugs treatment in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Nov;26(11):1585-90. [Abstract: Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active glucoside in Shaoyao (peony root), and is transformed into an antispasmodic metabolite, paeonimetabolin-I (PM-I), by intestinal bacteria in the gut after oral administration of Shaoyao or Shaoyao-Gancao-tang (SGT, Shakuyaku-Kanzo-To in Japanese). SGT is a pain-relieving traditional Chinese formulation (Kampo-medicine in Japanese) and is often used together with antibacterial synthetic drugs, such as amoxicillin and metronidazole (AMPC-MET), in peptic ulcer therapy. Since the bioavailability of PF in SGT has been reported to be significantly reduced by co-administered antibacterial drugs, we investigated how to minimize this reducing effect of antibacterial treatment in the present study. We found that repetitive administration of SGT starting 24 h after AMPC-MET treatment rapidly restored the plasma PM-I concentration from SGT reduced by AMPC-MET, due to its restorative effect on the decreased PF-metabolizing activity of intestinal bacteria in rat feces. The present findings suggest that it may be clinically useful to administer SGT repetitively, starting 1 or 2 d after treatment with a mixture of AMPC-MET during their combination therapy, to accelerate the recovery of the reduced bioavailability of PF in SGT. Similar administration regimens may also be useful in other combination therapies involving traditional Chinese formulations and antibacterial synthetic drugs to ensure the efficacy of the bioactive glycosides in the formulations.] Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan. Click here to read

HelmlingFC,1979,Botrytis Blight, American Peony Society 75 Years pp83-84

Hernandez, George A.. (1995) Control of Desease and Pests . pp. 70-74 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

Hernandez, George A.. (1995) Digging and Dividing the Herbaceous and the Hybrid. pp. 13- 17 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

HertleF ,1997, Paeonia-lutea-Hybriden von Prof. Saunders,Gartenpraxis 12:8-13

Hess, H.E. , Landolt, E. & Hirzel, R. (1967-73) Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete. 3 vols. Basel, Birkhauser, (Vol. 1 of 2nd Ed. 1976)

Heuffel—Johann Heuffel, 1800-1857, Hungary

Heuffel,1858, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, , p. 49;

Heuffel,1858,P.pergerina Miller sec,Enum Pl Banat13

HeuserCE , EvensenKB,1986,Cut Flower Longevity of Peony,Journ Amer Soc Hort Science vol111:6 pp896-899

He X, Xing D, Ding Y, Li Y, Xu L, Du L. Effects of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion on pharmacokinetic fate of paeoniflorin after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Oct;94(2-3):339-44. [Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion on pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) in rats. The cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats were induced by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries of normal rats for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. The resultant animals were immediately administrated by PRE (at a dose of 60 mg/kg of paeoniflorin) via the femoral vein, whilst the same dose was injected to the normal rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time. Quantification of paeoniflorin in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method. In normal rats, the major parameters of distribution half-life (t1/2alpha), elimination half-life (t1/2beta), area under the plasma concentration-time (AUC), mean retention time (MRT), and clearance (CL), estimated by an open two-compartmental model, were 0.69, 18.77 min, 5338.71 (microg min)/ml, 18.13 min and 0.0162 mg/(kg min), respectively. However, in ischemia-reperfusion rats, the corresponding parameters were 2.04, 24.51 min, 9626.00 (microg min)/ml, 29.75 min and 0.0071 mg/(kg min), respectively. The results showed that ischemia- reperfusion significantly increased AUC values, decreased CL values, and prolonged the terminal half-life of paeoniflorin. These findings suggest that the injuries of ischemia-reperfusion could play an important role in pharmacokinetic process of paeoniflorin.] Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100094, China. Click here to read complete article

Heywood, V.H. (ed.) (1961) Catalogus Plantarum Vascularum Hispaniae. Madrid, Instituto Botanico 'A.J. Cavanilles' Text in Spanish and English. unfinished? Paeonia?

Heze Flowers,1997,Peonies Katalog,87 South Peony Road, Heze City, Shandong, China

HicksGL , StebbinsGL,1934,Meiosis in some species and a hybrid of Paeonia,Am J Botany 21: iss5 p228-242

HiepkoP,1956, Das zentrifugale Androecum der Paeoniaceae',Ber Deutsche Bot Ges- 77: 427-435

HiepkoP,1966, Zur Morphologie , Anatomie und Funktion des Diskous der Paeoniaceae. Ber Deutsche Bot Ges- 79: (6) 233-245

Hillier & Son: 1977. Hilliers manual of Trees and Shrubs. Newton Abbot.

Hire,1906, Rev Flora Croat. 1 (in Rad. Jugoslav. Akad. 167, 115), 444-445

His, Charles, 1769-1851.

His, Charles, 1842, Notice sur les pivoines en arbre. Paris, Dondey-Dupré, 1842. 18 p. 26 cm.

Hitchcock, C.L. et al. (1955-1965) Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 Vols. Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press.

Ho LY, 1980, [The occurrence of paeoniflorine in the genus Paeonia (author's transl) Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1980 Jul

HolenkaF,1967,Paeonia japonice Miyabe et Takeda (Paeoniaceae),Skalnicki, No 1 : 11- 12 Illus (Czech)

Hollingsworth, Don,1972,A Peony Cross for Non-Hybridizers,American Peony Society 75 Years pp140-141

Hollingsworth, Don,1974,Fertilizer To Help Grow Peonies ,American Peony Society 75 Years pp74-75

Hollingsworth, Don,1974,Parasitic Root-Knot Nematode in Garden Peonies,American Peony Society 75 Years pp88-92

Hollingsworth, Don,1977,Stolons, Suckers and Peonies,American Peony Society 75 Years pp163-163

Hollingsworth, Don,1977,Selecting Peonies for Introduction I: Adaptations favoring Propagation,American Peony Society 75 Years pp145-146

Hollingsworth, Don,1978, Recent Trends in Garden Peonies. American Horticulturist. 57:4

Hollingsworth, Don,1978,Itoh Hybrid Stem bud ised as Scions,American Peony Society 75 Years pp158-158

Hollingsworth, Don,1979,Controlled Germination of Peony Seeds Indoors,American Peony Society 75 Years pp134-135

Hollingsworth, Don,1979,The Management of Disease Risk in Peony Plantings,American Peony Society 75 Years pp84-88

Hollingsworth, Don,(Ed.) 1979,Hybridizing,American Peony Society 75 Years

Hollingsworth, Don,1979,Peony Seed Germination Illustrated.American Peony Society Bulletin. 232:18-22

Hollingsworth, Don,1980, How a Peony Grows, or Where to Apply the Colchicine.,American Peony Society Bulletin 233:31-35 3 photo illustrations

Hollingsworth, Don,1990, Peony Breeding. pp. 101-139 in Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990

Hollingsworth, Don,1990, Questions and Answers on Hybridizing Terminology . pp. 140-145 in: Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990

Hollingsworth, Don,1995, Report about red-flowering intersecional hybrids ,

Hollingsworth, Don,1995, Parasitic Root-Knot Nematode in Garden Peonies . pp. 79-85 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

Hollingsworth, Don,1995, Questions and Answers on Hybridizing Terms. pp. 86-90 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

Hollingsworth, Don,1995, Seedling Production of Peonies. pp. 67-70 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

Homer. Ilias. 5, 899ff


So sprach er, und dem Paieon befahl er, ihn zu heilen.
Und Paieon streute ihm schmerzstillende Kräuter auf
Und heilte ihn, denn er war nicht sterblich geschaffen. 
Und wie wenn Feigenlab weiße Milch in Eile lässt fest werden,
Die flüssige, und sehr schnell gerinnt sie rings beim Rühren:
So rasch wurde geheilt der stürmende Ares.

W. Schadewaldt, Frankfurt/M. 1977

Deyuan Hong

Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany,

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China Fax: +86 10 62 59 0843, Biographical Data here>>

publication list received from Prof Hong on 7th Febr. 2005, corrected with additional links to online available papers by Dr. Carsten Burkhardt, 9. June 2005

About Studies on Paeonia

Hong D Y, Zhang Z X & Zhu X Y, 1988: Studies on the genus Paeonia (1)---report of karyotypes of some wild species in China. Acta Phytotax. Sin., 26(1): 33—43.

Hong D Y, 1989: Studies on the genus Paeonia (2)---the characters of leaf epidermis and their systematic significance. Chinese Journ. Bot. 1(2): 145—153.

Nakata M & Hong D Y, 1991: Fluorescent chromosome banding with chromomycin A3 and DAPI in Paeonia japonica and P. obovata. Chromosome Information Service, 50: 19—21.

Hong, Deyuan, 1992 Paeonia pp. 536-537 in : Fu, L. K. (ed.) China plant red data book, 1. Beijing

Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Li X Y, 1994: Paeonia in Xinjiang, China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33(4): 349—355.

Pei Y L & Hong D Y, 1995: Paeonia qiui- A new woody species of Paeonia from Hubei, China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33(1): 91—93.


(link to a local copy html-file)

Pei Y L, Zou Y P, Yin Z, Wang X Q, Zhang Z X & Hong D Y, 1995: Preliminary report on RAPD analysis of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33(4): 350—356.

Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Pei Y L, 1996: The identity of Paeonia decomposita Handel-Mazzetti. Taxon, 45: 67—69.

(link to a local copy html-file)

Zhang S Z, Pan K Y, Zhang D M & Hong D Y, 1997: Observations on abnormalities in meiosis of pollen mother cells of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea. Acta Bot. Sin. 39(5): 397—404.

Hong D Y, 1997: Notes on Paeonia decomposita Hand.-Mazz. Kew Bull. 52(4): 957—963.

(link to a local copy html-file)

Hong D Y, 1997: Paeonia (Paeoniaceae) in Xizang (Tibet). Novon, 7: 156—161.


Luo Y B, Pei Y L, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 1998: A study on pollination biology of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea (Paeoniaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sin. 36(2): 134—144.


(link to a local copy html-file with faster photos)

Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Yu H, 1998: Taxonomy of Paeonia delavayi complex. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 554—564.


Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Xie Z W, 1998: Yinpingmudan, the wild relative of the king of flowers, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 36(6): 515—520.


(link to a local copy html-file)

Hong D Y, 1998: Paeonia rockii and its one new subspecies from Mt. Taibai, Shaanxi of China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 36(6): 538—543.


(link to local copy.pdf-file) (link to a local copy .html-file)

Hong D Y & Pan K Y, 1999: A revision of the Paeonia suffruticosa complex (Paeoniaceae). Nord. J. Bot., 19(3): 289—299.

(link to a local copy .html-file)

Hong D Y & Pan KY, 1999: Taxonomical history and revision of Paeonia sect. Moutan (Paeoniaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sin. 37(4): 351—368.

(link to a local copy .html-file)

Zhou, S.-L., Hong, Deyuan & Pan, K.-Y.:1999. Pollination biology of Paeonia jishanensis T. Hong & W. Z. Zhao (Paeoniaceae), with special emphasis on pollen and stigma biology; in Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society, 30(1): May 1999, pp. 43 – 52.


Hong D Y, 2000: A subspecies of Paeonia mascula (Paeoniaceae) from W. Asia and SE. Europe. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 38(4): 381—385.

Hong D Y & Pan K Y, 2001: Paeonia anomala subsp. veitchii, a new combination and its biology. Novon, 11: 235—238.


Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Turland N J, 2001: Paeoniaceae. In Wu Z Y & Raven P H (eds.): Flora of China. Vol. 6: 127—132. Science Press and Missouri Botanic Garden Press.


(local copy .html-file with comments & maps)

Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Rao G Y, 2001: Cytogeography and taxonomy of the Paeonia obovata polyploid complex. Pl. Syst. Evol. 227(3/4): 123—136.

(link to an online-version on the Harvard-Server)

(local copy .html-file)

Hong D Y & Zhou S L, 2003: Paeonia (Paeoniaceae) in the Caucasus. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 143: 135—150.

(link to a local copy .pdf-file)

Zhou Z Q, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2003: Phylogenetic analyses of Paeonia section Moutan (tree peonies, Paeoniaceae) based on morphological data. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 41 (5): 436—446.

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Hong D Y, Wang X Q & Zhang D M, 2004: Paeonia saueri (Paeoniaceae), a new species from the Balkans. Taxon, 53(1): 83—90.

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Hong D Y & Pan K Y, 2004: A taxonomical revision of the Paeonia anomala L. complex. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 91(1): 87—98.


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Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Zhou Z Q, 2004: Circumscription of Paeonia suffruticosa and identification of cultivated tree peonies. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 42(3): 275—283.

Abstract  The cultivated tree peonies have long been scientifically called Paeonia suffruticosa. After “Feng Dan", a tree peony cultivated for medicinal purpose, was described as a new species, P. ostii, in 1992, the name P. suffruticosa is still used to represent


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Symposium 12 Botany in ex-Yugoslav countries Organizer: O. Vasi? Hall 2: 9-13

De-Y. Hong: Paeonia in the Mediterranean-W Asian region: taxonomy and biogeography, (link)

Li Q B, Zhou Z Q, Zhao X, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Interspecific relationships among the wild species of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. based on DNA sequences of Adh gene family. Acta Hort. Sin. 31(5): 627—632.

[Abstract: A portion (the big intron between exon 5 and 6, ca. 2 kb) of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene of 15 wild tree peony accessions collected from 15 populations, which represent all the eight wild species in sect. Moutan, was analyzed using PCR-RFLP technique, and this portion of nine accessions, which represent also all the eight wild species, was sequenced for a better understanding of the interspecific relationships in this section. A reduced-median (RM) network of sect. Moutan was constructed with Network 3.0 computer program using the PCR-RFLP data obtained from the digestion experiments of 12 selected restriction enzymes. Both maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of sect. Moutan were constructed with PAUP4.0 program using the sequences newly obtained in this study and from GenBank. As a result, a well resolved and highly supported gene tree of sect. Moutan (by bootstrap values) was obtained. The tree is basically in accordance with that constructed from morphological data. The phylogenetic relationships among species in sect. Moutan are discussed in detail.]

Sang T, Pan J, Zhang D M, Diane Ferguson, Wang C, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Origins of polyploids: an example from peonies (Paeonia) and a model for angiosperms. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 561—571.



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[The majority of tetraploid peonies are allopolyploids derived from crosses between phylogenetically distinct diploid lineages. Tetraploid Paeonia obovata was previously considered to be an autopolyploid because it is morphologically indistinguishable from the diploid of the same species. The presence of the Adh2 gene in tetraploid P. obovata but the inability to amplify the Adh2 gene from Chinese diploids of P. obovata, however, suggests that the tetraploid was not an autotetraploid derivative of the geographically adjacent diploid populations in China. The Adh gene phylogenies rather suggest that the tetraploid originated from crosses between two geographical races of diploid P. obovata distributed in China and Japan. The intermediate status of tetraploid P. obovata between auto- and allopolyploidy highlights the need for population genetic analyses of polyploid origins along the continuous range of genomic divergence. Here we present a model that describes the probabilities of polyploid formation and establishment as a function of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid formation (Pf) is obtained from the multiplication of the probability of production of unreduced gametes (Pg) and the probability of 'hybridization' (Ph). Pf stays relatively stable when the genomic divergence is low, and then decreases progressively rapidly with the increase of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid establishment (Pe), which depends on the rate of appearance of stable beneficial gene combinations and the rate of fertility restoration, is positively correlated with the genomic divergence of diploid parents. Multiplication of Pf and Pe gives an overall probability of polyploid origins (Po) that varies continuously along the genomic divergence between diploid progenitors.]

Zhao X, Zhou Z Q, Li Q B, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Molecular evidence for the interspecific relationships in Paeonia sect. Moutan: PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 42(3): 236—244.

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Hong D Y & Castroviejo S, 2005:(1682) Proposal to conserve the name Paeonia broteri against P. lusitanica Mill. Taxon 54(1): 211-212.

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Hong D Y &Pan K Y, 2005: Notes on taxonomy of Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 43(2):169-177


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Hong D Y & Pan K Y, 2005: Additional notes on taxonomy of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 43(3):284-287

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[This paper deals with six combinations proposed in 2001 in Paeonia sect. Moutan. Paeonia linyanshanii (S. G. Haw & Lauener) B. A. Shen and P. linyanshanii ssp. taibaishanica (D. Y. Hong) B. A. Shen are recognized as illegitimate names, P. ostii T. Hong & J. X. Zhang ssp. lishizhenenii (lishizhenii) (B. A. Shen) B. A. Shen is reduced to synonymy of P. ostii, P. delavayi Franch. ssp. angustiloba (Rehder & E. H. Wilson) B. A. Shen and P. delavayi ssp. lutea (Delavay ex Franch.) B. A. Shen are reduced to synonymy of P. delavayi, and P. delavayi ssp. ludlowii (Stern & Taylor) B. A. Shen is reduced to synonymy of P. ludlowii (Stern & Taylor) D. Y. Hong.]

Hong De-Yuan, Wang Xiao-Quan (2006) The identity of Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), with special reference to its relationship with P. mascula (L.) Mill., Feddes Repertorium, Volume 117, Issue 1-2, 2006. Pages 65-84, Copyright © 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Abstract, it is online available

[Abstract: The taxonomy of the genus Paeonia in central Mediterranean islands has been controversial, with number of recognized taxa changing greatly from one species without infraspecific division to three species or five infraspecific taxa in one species, and with the number of synonyms as great as 30. In the present work, the taxonomic history is thoroughly reviewed and a taxonomic revision is made based on extensive field work, chromosome observation, population sampling, examination of a large amount of herbarium specimens, and subsequent statistic analysis. As a result of the studies P. corsica Sieber ex Tausch, an ignored specific name, is restored at specific rank, and the species is found distinct from all the three subspecies of P. mascula in this region in having mostly nine (vs 10) leaflets/segments, shorter hairs (1.5 mm vs 3 mm long) on carpels, rather densely holosericeous (vs glabrous or very sparsely hirsute) on the lower surface of leaves. It is a diploid, confined to Corsica France), Sardinia (Italy), Ionian Islands and Akarnania Province of Greece, whereas P. mascula is a tetraploid, widely distributed from Spain to Turkey and Iraq, but not in Corsica, Sardinia and W Greece. In addition, type specimens of four taxa are designated, and 29 botanic names are listed as synonyms of P. corsica in this paper. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Zusammenfassung: Die Identität von Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), mit besonderem Bezug auf ihre Verwandtschaft mit P. mascula (L.) Mill. Die Taxonomie der Gattung Paeonia auf den zentralen Mittelmeerinseln ist stets kontrovers gewesen. Die Anzahl der Taxa wechselte zwischen einer Art ohne infraspezifische Differenzierung bis zu drei oder fünf infraspezifische Taxa innerhalb einer Art. Die Anzahl der Synonyme beträgt bis zu 30 Taxa. In vorliegender Arbeit wird die Geschichte der Taxonomie sorgfältig betrachtet und eine taxonomische Revision auf der Basis extensiver Feldstudien, Chromosomen-Bewertung, Sammlungen von Populationen, der Untersuchung zahlreicher Herbarproben und abschließender statistischer Analysen vorgenommen. Im Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen wird Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch, ein bislang unbeachteter Artname, erneut in den Rang einer Art erhoben. Diese in dieser Region gefundene Spezies wurde als verschieden von den drei Unterarten von Paeonia mascula befunden. Sie hat meist neun ( 10) Blättchen, kürzere Haare (1.5 mm vs 3 mm lang) auf dem Karpell dichtere holoserios (vs glabrous oder selten hirsut) auf der Blattunterseite. Paeonia corsica ist diploid auf Korsika (Frankreich), Sardinien (Italien), den Ionischen Inseln und der Provinz Akarnania in Griechenland, während Paeonia mascula tetraploid ist und weit verbreitet von Spanien bis in die Türkei und den Irak, fehlt aber auf Korsika, Sardinien und in Westgriechenland. Außerdem werden Typspecimen für 4 Taxa festgelegt. Als Synonyme von P. corsica wurden 29 Namen aufgelistet. Received: 8 November 2005 ] [local copy pdf html scan]

Hong H, Wang QM, Zhao ZP, Liu GQ, Shen YS, Chen GL. Studies on antidiabetic effects of cortex Moutan polysaccharide-2b in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Apr;38(4):255-9. ( Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.) [Abstract: To study the antidiabetic effects of cortex Moutan polysaccharide-2b (CMP-2b) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. METHODS: The T2DM model rats were induced by a single intravenous injection of low dose streptozotocin (STZ) and intake of high sucrose-fat diet. CMP-2b was given to T2DM rats daily through gavage for 4-5 weeks. The body weight, water and food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, serum insulin, and insulin receptor (Ins R) were determined. RESULTS: Oral administration of CMP-2b significantly decreased water and food intake, FBG, total cholesterol (Tch), and triglyceride (TG), improved the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and remarkably raised the number of low affinity InsR and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in T2DM rats. CONCLUSION: CMP-2b may be useful for treating T2DM and its complications. PMID: 12889122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hong, Tao,(1991),Neues zur Nomenklatur der Strauchpäonien, Schweizer Staudengärten 15/16:25-27

Hong, Tao, ZhangJX, LiJJ, ZhaoWZ et al, (1992), Study of the Chinese wild woody peonies I. New taxa of Paeonia L. Sect. Moutan DC, Bull Bot Research Harbin 12(3):223-234

Hong, Tao, ZhaoWZ, (1994), P.spontanea (Rehder),Bull Bot Research Harbin 14 (3):238

Hong, Tao, OstiGL, (1994), Study on the Chinese Wild Woody Peonies II. New taxa of Paeonia L.Sect.Moutan DC ,Bull Bot Research Harbin 14(3);pp237-240

Hong, Tao & Dai, Z.L. 1997, Study on the Chinese Wild Woody Peonies III. New Taxa of Paeonia L. Sect. Moutan DC. - Bull. Bot. Res. 17 (1) 1-5

as co-author: Zhu, Xiangyun1; Hong, Tao2 (2005): Validation and neotypification of Paeonia rockii subsp. linyanshanii (Paeoniaceae). Taxon, Volume 54, Number 3, August 2005, pp. 806-807(2), Publisher: International Association for Plant Taxonomy [Abstract: "Paeonia rockii subsp. linyanshanii T. Hong & G. L. Osti" was not validly published in 1994 because it was assigned to "Paeonia rockii (S. G. Haw & L. A. Lauener) T. Hong & J. J. Li", which was not then a validly published name. Although the species name was validated in 1998 as Paeonia rockii (S. G. Haw & L. A. Lauener) T. Hong & J. J. Li ex D. Y. Hong, P. rockii subsp. linyanshanii has still not been validly published, although P. suffruticosa var. linyanshanii J. J. Halda was validly published in 1997. P. rockii subsp. linyanshanii is validated here, based on Handa's varietal name, and, because the holotype was not preserved, a neo-type is designated. Keywords: PAEONIACEAE; PAEONIA ROCKII SUBSP. LINYANSHANII; VALIDATION Affiliations: 1: Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China 2: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China] online available under the following (link)

Hooker—Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911, England, son of W.J.Hooker

Hooker 1868, Paeonia emodi. Himalayan Peony, Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab. 5719

Hooker &, Thomson,1872, Flora of British India, London Paeonia emodi var. glabrata 1, 30.

Hooker, J.D. & Jackson, B.D. 1885 Index Kewensis, vol. 2 : 400-401, Facsinùle de l'édition originale (1946), Oxford University Press, London

Hooker, J.D., Jackson, B.D. & al. 1886-1995 Index Kewensis, suppléments 1 à 20, Oxford University Press, London

Hooker 1882 Paeonia wittmanniana. Native of the Caucasus and Armenia, Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab. 6645 vol. 108

Hooker,1901, Paeonia lutea, Native of China. Curtis's Botanical Magazine, vol.127, Tab. 7788

Hooker - Sir Willam Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865, England

biography here

Hooker, W.J. 1829, Flora Boreali-Americana, P. brownii Douglas 1, 27, London

Hooker, W.J. 1832, Paeonia officinalis, var. anemoniflora, Anemone-flowered var. of the Common Peony Curtis's Botanical Magazine t. 3175 ;

Hooker, W.J. 1835 Paeonia Russi, Crimson Paeony. Curtis's Botanical Magazine t. 3431

Hooker, W.J. 1838, Journ Jard., p. 279 ;

HopeCH,1901,A Single White Peony, Note on P.emodi,Garden vol60, p82

Horikawa, Y. (1972- 1976) Atlas of the Japanese Flora . Vols 1-5. Tokyo, Gakken (in engl.)

Hortus Sanitatis. De Herbis et Plantis. De Animalibus et Reptilibus. De Avibus et Volatilibus. De Piscibus et Natatilibus. De Lapidibus et in terre venis nascentibus. De Urinis et earum speciebus. Tabula medicinalis cum Directorio generali per omnes tractatus.. [Strassburg, Reinhard Beck], 1517.

Hort,1908,P.lutea var superba,Gard. Chron. 44, 50, cum tab. .

Takashi Hosoki Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu-cho 1060, Matsue, Shimane 1690

Hosoki,-T.; Hamada,-M.; Inaba,-K. 1983, Forcing of tree peony [Paeonia suffruticosa] by chemicals [ethanol, ethylene, nitrogen gas] and low temperature treatment, and retarding by long-term cold storage. Bulletin-of-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture-Shimane-University (Japan). (Dec 1983). (no.17) p. 8-12.. En (English)

Takashi Hosoki, Morihito Hamada , Kunio Inaba,1984, Forcing of Tree Peony for December Shipping by Pre-Chilling and Chemical Treatments, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 53:2 pp187-193


Takashi Hosoki, AndoM, KubaraT ++,1989, In vitro Propagation of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) by a Longitudinal Shootsplit Method, Plant Cell Reports vol.8:4 pp 243-246


Takashi Hosoki, Morihito Hamada, Takumi Kando, Ryouji Moriwaki and Kunio Inaba,1991, Comparative study of anthocyanins in tree peony flowers, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 60:395-403


Takashi Hosoki, Mitsuhiro Seo,1991, Flower anthocyanins of herbaceous peony, Bull Fac Agr Shimane Univ 25 : 11-14


Takashi Hosoki, Mitsuhiro Seo, Morihito Hamada, Katsuhiro Itoh & Kunio Inaba,1991, New Classification Method of Herbaceous Peony Cultivars Based on Morphological Characters and Distribution Pattern of Flavone/ Flavonol Components in the Petals, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 59(4):787-793


Takashi Hosoki, Morihito Hamada, Toshiyuki MaedaT & Takahiro Gotoh 1992, Forcing of Tree Peony for December Shipping using Spring-Blooming and Winter-Blooming Cultivars, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 61:1 pp 121-126


Takashi Hosoki, etal,1996, Forcing of tree peony for December Flowering using Chinese cultivars, Environ Control Biol 34,239-243


Takashi Hosoki, Daisuke Kimura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Tomomi Nagasako, Kaori Nishimoto, Katsiyni Ohta, Mari Sugiyama & Kazuhisa Haruki,1997, Comparative Study of Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) Cultivars and Hybrids by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 66:2 pp.393 –400


Takashi Hosoki, Daisuke Kimura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Tomomi Nagasako, Kaori Nishimoto, Katsiyni Ohta, Mari Sugiyama & Kazuhisa Haruki, 1997, Comparative study of Chinese tree peony cultivars by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, Scientia Horticulturae vol.70:1 pp.67-72


Takashi Hosoki, Tomomi Nagasako, Daisuke Kimura, Kaori Nishimoto, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Katsumi Ohta, Mari Sugiyama & Kazuhisa Haruki,1997, Classification of Herbaceous Peony Cultivars by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) Analysis, Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 65(4):843-849


Takashi Hosoki 2000, Pictures of herbaceous peonies, personal communication 11.07.2000


see also: Ohta

Host—Nicholas Thomas Host, 1761-1834, Österreich

Host,1831, Flora Austr. 2, Paeonia p. 64 ,

Houttuyn, M. Natuurlyke historie of uitvoerige beschryving der dieren, planten en mineraalen, volgens het samenstel van den heer Linnaeus. Amsterdam, F. Houttuyn, 1761-1785. 8vo. 3 sections in 37 volumes. Approx. pp. 22000, with 296 engraved plates.

Hovey CM, 1837, Some Remarks on the Herbaceous Peonies, Hovey's Mag vol. 3

Hovey CM, 1852, Description of Twenty-six New Varieties of Herbaceous Peonies, Hovey's Mag, vol1, pp. 360-363

Hovey CM, 1858, Herbaceous Peonies, Hovey's Mag, vol. 24, pp. 489-495

Hovey CM, 1862, Herbaceous Peonies, Hovey's Mag, pp. 337,342

Howell,1897, Flora N.W. Amer. 1, 27

Hsiu SL, Lin YT, Wen KC, Hou YC, Chao PD. A deglucosylated metabolite of paeoniflorin of the root of Paeonia lactiflora and its pharmacokinetics in rats. Planta Med. 2003 Dec;69(12):1113-8. [Abstract: Paeoniflorin is a bioactive monoterpene glucoside in Paeoniae Radix (PR), the roots of Paeonia lactiflora (Ranunculaceae). By oral administration to rats with the decoction of PR, the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin were investigated in this study. A deglucosylated metabolite of paeoniflorin, paeoniflorgenin (PG), in serum was identified based on HPLC/MS and NMR spectral data. HPLC/UV methods were developed for determining PG in serum and feces suspension. A non-compartment model was used for the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, the metabolism of paeoniflorin by various types of feces was investigated as well. The paeoniflorin levels in serum were below the detection limit throughout the study. The C (max), t (max), and AUC (0-t) of PG were 8.0 microg/mL, 10 min and 487.0 microg min/mL, respectively. Paeoniflorin was found to be hydrolyzed into PG through incubation with feces of rabbit, rat, pig or human. Similar profiles of PG were shown for various types of feces, except for rabbit. In conclusion, paeoniflorin was not absorbed per se, whereas its aglycone paeoniflorgenin was absorbable and circulating in the bloodstream. Rat and pig are appropriate models for investigating the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin.] Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, ROC. Click here to read

Hsu FL, Lai CW, Cheng JT. Antihyperglycemic effects of paeoniflorin and 8-debenzoylpaeoniflorin, glucosides from the root of Paeonia lactiflora. Planta Med. 1997 Aug;63(4):323-5.

HsuOY,1979,Record of the Tree Peonies of Loyang,American Peony Society 75 Years pp63-67

Hu,1955,P.oxypetala, obovata,HandbEcon Pl I (1) 344-346+

HuangB, HillsGJ , SunderlandN,1983,Virus-infected Pollen grains in Paeonia emodi,Journ Experimental Botany vol34:147 pp1392-1398

HuangL, YeW, CaiB ++,1990,[A preliminary study on the pharmacology of the compound prescription huangqin tang and its component drugs],Chung Kuo Chung YaoTsa Chih Feb;15(2):115-7, 128

Huang L, Shi P, Wang X. [The effect of the extract from Radix Paeoniae alba on IgA Glomerulonephritis in mice] [Article in Chinese] Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Feb;26(2):109-11. [OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of the extract from Radix Paeoniae Alba on IgA glomerulonephritis in mice. METHODS: IgA glomerulonephritis was induced by injection of dextran and sephadex-150. After administrating the extract, the contents of urinary protein, BUN and Cr in serum were determined. RESULTS: The extract could inhibit the decline of mouse weight, and decrease urinary protein content and BUN content in serum. While, the extract had no effect on Cr in serum. CONCLUSION: The extract from Radix Paeoniae Alba had therapeutical effect on IgA glomerulonephritis.] No. 451 Hospital of PLA, Xi'an 710054.

Hünerwolf, Jakob Augustin, 1644-1685.

Hünerwolf, Jakob Augustin 1680 Anatomia paeoniae, in qua natales et qualitates paeoniae, itemque praeparationes et medicamenta ex ea varia cum virtutibus et usu ad plurimos humani corporis affectus exhibentur. Autore Jacobo Augustino Hünerwolffio. Arnsteti, typis H. Meureri,. [4], 110, [8] p. ; 16 cm.

Huerta, Garcia del 1557, Aromatum et simplicium aliquot medicamentorum apud Indos nascentium historia. Übersetzt von Carolus Clusius, Antwerpen

Hultén, E. & Pries, M. (1986) Atlas of North European Vascular Plants (north ofthe Tropic of Cancer), vol. 1 : carte 885 et vol. 3 : 1055, Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein

Hutchinson, J. (1973) The families of flowering plants, 3rd édition : 492-493, Oxford University Press, London

Huth—Ernst Huth, 1845-1879, Deutschland and Great Britain

Huth, Ernst, 1891 Monographie der Gattung Paeonia. in: Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 14 : 258-276 Published September 1891 ; cf. 1899, Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 26, Beibl. 61, 6.,

Huth, Ernst,1897, Jardin, 11, 216, cum tab. ?

Huth, Ernst,1897, P.obovata,Bull Herb Boiss, Ser.2,5, 1095:

Huth, Ernst ,1893, Journ Soc. Nat. Hort. France, Ser. 3, 15, 274 ?

Huth, Ernst ,1903, Flora and Sylva, 1, 230, 231 cum tab. et fig. ?

Huxley, A. & al. (1992) Paeonia, The new R.H.S. Dictionary of Gardening, vol. 4: 435-440, The Macmillan Press Limited, London

HylanderN,1938,Om Bondpionens Uppkomst och vetenskapliga Namn " [On the Origin and scientific Name of the double red Paeony].,Lustgarden, 18-19, 69-76.

Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur H