F.C. Stern A Study of the Genus Paeonia
30. P.Broteri Boissier & Reuter, Diagn. PI.Nov.HisP.4 (184-2) ; Boissier, Voy. Bot. EsP.2, 714 (1845) ; Argenta, Album Ft. Med.-Farm. 1, t. 31 (1862) ; Amo y Mora, F/. Fanerog. Penins. Iber. 6, 746 (1873) ; Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Ft. HisP.3, 975 (1880) ; Willkomm, III. Ft. HisP.Balear. 1, 105, t. 65, fig. B (1881-85) ; Colmeiro, Enum.y Rev. PI. Penins. Hisp.-Lusit. 1, 88 (1885) ; Baker in Gard. Chron., N. Ser. 22, 10 (1884) ; ibid. 24, 48, fig. n (1886) ; Lynch in Journ. Roy. Hart. Soc. 12, 436 (1890) ; Lazara e Ibiza, ComP.Fl. EspaH. 2, 356 (1907) ; Coutinho, Nota Fl. Portug. 7, 5 (1930) ; F.C. Stem in Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. 56, 72 (1931) ; F.C. Stern in ibid. 68, 127 (1943).Syn. P.Broteri var. ovatifolia Boiss. & Reut., I.e. (1842) ; Boissier, I.e. (1845) ; Amo y Mora, I.e. (1873) ; Golmeiro, I.e. 89 (1885) ; Mariz in Bol. Soc. Brot. 4, 112 (1886) ; Lazara e Ibiza, I.e. 357 (1907).P.corallina Retz. var. Broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Cosson, ComP.Fl. Atlant. 2, 53 (1886) ; Huth in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 14, 267 (1891) ; Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5, ii, 550 (1923).P.corallina f. Broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Voss, Vilmorin's Blumengarten, 39, (1894).P.lobata Desf. ex DC. Syst. 1, 391 (1817), quoad pi. lusit., nom. illeg. ; DC. Prodr. 1, 66 (1824), quoad distrib. P.lobata Desf. ex Boissier, Voy. Bot. EsP.2, 14 (1839). P.lusitanica ? Miller, Gard. Dict. No. 8 (1768) ; Tausch in Flora, 11, i, 86 (1828), pro parte ; Sampaio, Adic. e Cm. Fl. Portug. (in Bol. Soc. Brot. Ser. 3, 7), 27-29 (1931). P.lusitanica rac. ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Sampaio, Lista EsP.ReP.Herb. Portug. 53 (1913). P.mascula var. Broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Gürke in Richter, PI. EuroP.2, 401 (1903) ; Coutinho, Fl. Portugal, 240 (1913)P.mascula var. ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Gurke, I.e. (1903).P.mascula rac. lusitanica (Mill.) Sampaio, Prodr. Fl. EuroP.(in Ann. Soc. Polyt. Porto, 4-6), 8 (1909-11). P.mascula rac. ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Sampaio, Prodr. Fl. Portug. (in Ann. Sc. Acad. Polyt. Porto, 4-6), 8 (1909-11). P.officinalis L. sec. Brotero, Fl. Lusit. 2, 299 (1804), non L. emend. Willd. P.officinalis b lobata (Desf.) Webb, Iter. HisP.80 (1831). ? P.officinalis var. lusitanica (Mill.) Martyn, Mill. Gard. Dict. 2, i. No. a (1807).
Description. Stem glabrous, 30-40 cm. high. Lower leaves bitemate, with the terminal leaflets and sometimes the laterals deeply divided into 2 or 3 segments ; upper leaves bitemate, with leaflets undivided; leaflets (or segments) sessile or practically so, elliptic, attenuated to the acute apex and to the cuneate base, or broadly elliptic, sub-acute at the apex and widely cuneate at the base, glabrous, shining green above, glaucous beneath. Flower 8-10 cm. across. Petals broadly obovate, rose. Stamens 2-2.5 cm. long, filaments yellow, anthers yellow. Carpels 2-4, densely white tomentose. Follicles 3-4 cm. long.
Distribution. From central to southern Spain and Portugal. spain : Granada, 910-1830 metres, E. Boissier (K) ; Sierra de Guardarrama, Reuter (K), Gandoger (K.), Atchley 294, 295 (K) ; Sierra de Alfacar, Lange (K); Cerro Mazotta, near Escorial, Lange (K) ; Cerro Maihotte, near Escorial, Winkler (K) ; Pardo, Escorial, Graells (K), Bourgeon 2354 (K) ; Escorial) Joad (K) ; Grazalema, Willkomm 34 (K.) ; Castijo Blanco, near Ronda, Bourgeau 18 (K); Sierra de Ronda, Willkomm 539 (K) ; Ronda district, near Sierra de Nieva, Ellman & Hubbard 344 (K) ; Serrania de Ronda, Sierra de Alibe, Gonio, Porte & Riga 19 (K) ; Sierra de Segura, Pica-Mesones, Bourgeau 531 (K) ; Murcia, Sierra de Alcaraz, Porte & Rigo 343 (K) ; prov. Jaen, Sierra Magina, Cuatrecasus (K); Hoys Quesevo, Navarredonda, Graells (K) ; Mt. Cerro Calar, 10 miles S.E. Granada, Ellman & Hubbard 804; Sierra de la Sagra, Bourgeau (K). portugal : Sierra de Monchique, Algarve, Bourgeau 755 (K) ; near Coimbre, Herinques 48 (K); sine loc. Deakin (K).
P.Broteri belongs to the subsection foliolatae but the leaflets are narrow, usually on a lower leaf the segments are about 9 to 10 cm. long and 2-75 to 3-5 cm. wide, and thus diner from the other species in this subsection. The number of leaflets, nineteen to twenty-three on a lower leaf, is also different. Among the specimens examined there are a few in which one of the segments, usually the terminal one, is heart-shaped, and this may have given rise to the varietal name of [end page 86] ovatifolia of Boissier since there seems to be no other difference between the type and this supposed variety. The cordate form of the segment also appears when the plant is grown in the good soil of a garden. P.Broteri is a diploid and appears to be unconnected with any other group.
This paeony, named after Felix Avellar Brotero, a celebrated Portuguese botanist of the eighteenth century, is found from the centre to the south of Spain and in southern Portugal. This paeony has been described to me as a wonderful sight in flower in a ravine on the hills near Ronda and also on the Ronda-Granada road, and on the mountains of Molina de la Rey between Granada and Cordova growing under Qyercus ruber. It is usually found on calcareous soil. P.coriacea is a near neighbour of P.Broteri in southern Spain : the difference between these two species is discussed under P.coriacea.
It has been suggested that Miller's name of P.lusitanica refers to this plant but this is a matter of doubt and the reason for retaining the name " Broteri " is given on page 127. The flower is said by several botanists to be sweet-scented, but in English gardens the scent is not noticeable; possibly the scent may be stronger when the plants are growing in a mass.
Paeonia Broteri is a charming plant and is too seldom seen in gardens, as the shining leaves and crimson flowers make an attractive combination. There is no difficulty in its cultivation, though it increases slowly. [end page 87]